Police have failed to solve the violent murders of more than two dozen prostitutes over the past two decades, The Independent on Sunday has found. And the true number of unsolved cases is likely to be much higher, as many more women have been reported missing by friends and family, often presumed dead although their bodies have not been recovered.
Research into some of these deaths reveals widespread regional variations in the way cases are investigated. Experts claim some police forces, the media and the public become interested only when there is a hint of some sensational element — a serial killer, say — to these crimes.
The deaths of individual women, they argue, often fail to capture public attention or sympathy, reflecting the negative attitudes many people still hold towards women who sell sex for a living. Prostitutes working the streets are most vulnerable. While only one in four sex workers are on the streets, they make up three-quarters of the victims. Women who work inside in groups of three or more are the safest, according to international research. It is only women living at the very edges of society, desperately trying to support themselves, their children, a violent pimp, and often an addiction, who are left working the streets.
There are also a growing number of asylum-seekers and refugees, with no access to public funds and little, if any, social support, who work there to buy food, said Hilary Kinnell, author of Violence and Sex Work in Britain.
Campaigners argue that sex workers like those killed in Bradford will remain at risk until police forces adopt a policy of offering amnesty for all sex workers and their clients after every murder or serious attack, in a bid to encourage people to come forward.
An urgent review is needed, they say, of the legislation that forces prostitutes "underground" and into more dangerous situations. The Lib Dems have long promised to decriminalise prostitution, something their new coalition leader, David Cameron, last Friday promised to reconsider.
However, the police, the media and society, are only really interested and outraged when there is a series of murders; individual murders tend to get overlooked. She said confused and conflicting policing methods hampered investigations.
Pleas by the detective leading the investigation into the death of Rebecca Hall, 19, in Bradford in were hampered by the vice squad's failure to call an amnesty on street workers and their clients, who, as a result, were too scared to come forward with information. Hall suffered a severe beating and died from head injuries. Her body was found in an alleyway more than two weeks after she went missing. Ms Kinnell said: "Just as brutal as the killing was the anti-sex-worker policing, which carried on regardless.
It was not the least bit surprising that they didn't get anywhere. Police crackdowns on curb crawlers and street workers, especially since the Policing and Crime Act, has forced women into less well-lit and more sparsely populated areas, in order to avoid detection. Bradford sex workers and residents say women were hounded out of the established red-light area, which is a residential area, into an isolated industrial area. As a result, women are discouraged from coming forward to report violence.
One woman from Bradford, who wished to remain anonymous, has been assaulted four times in recent years. She said: "I didn't bother to report this because I knew nothing would be done. The same happened in Ipswich in where five women were murdered by Steve Wright.
Police came down heavily on sex workers, despite reports of increased attacks, driving the women into darker and more isolated areas. Efforts to curb the demand for prostitutes also mean clients are less likely to come forward with information, or even to rule themselves out of investigations into rape or other violence, for fear of the consequences.
Cari Mitchell, from the English Collective of Prostitutes, said: "We have seen the same again and again in most towns and cities around the country; crackdowns force women into greater danger. When women, and their customers, are anxious about getting spotted by police, less time is spent assessing the safety of the situation.
One of the problems facing detectives working on these cases is that prostitutes come into contact with complete strangers every night. They often work in quiet areas without CCTV cameras, and may be isolated from friends and family.A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people, in two or more separate events over a period of time, for primarily psychological reasons.
In many cases, the exact number of victims assigned to a serial killer is not known, and even if that person is convicted of a few, there can be the possibility that they killed many more. Organization and ranking of serial killings is made difficult by the complex nature of serial killers and incomplete knowledge of the full extent of many killers' crimes.
To address this, multiple categories have been provided in order to more accurately describe the nature of certain serial murders. This is not a reflection of an individual's overall rank, which may or may not vary depending on personal opinion concerning the nature and circumstances of their crimes. The fourth column in the table states the number of victims definitely assigned to that particular serial killer, and thus the table is in order of that figure.
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The fifth column states the number of possible victims the killer could have murdered. Some of these crimes are unsolved, but were included because they are the work of a serial killer, despite nobody being caught.
The most prolific modern serial killer is Harold Shipmanwith proven murders and possibly as many as see "Medical professionals", below. Excluding these "Medical professionals and pseudo-medical professionals", with their ability to kill simply and in plain sight, and Serial killer groups and couples belowthis list is a compilation of modern serial killers currently with the highest verifiable murder count.
This part of the list contains all serial killers with 15 to 30 proven victims who acted alone and were neither medical professionals nor contract killers. This part of the list contains all serial killers with five to fourteen proven victims who acted alone and were neither medical professionals nor contract killers. This part of the list contains all serial killers with fewer than five proven victims who acted alone and were neither medical professionals nor contract killers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Wikipedia list article. This list does not include serial killers active only before the year This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. This article has multiple issues.
Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article possibly contains original research.
Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.Philip John Smith born 10 July in Willenhall [ inconsistent ]West MidlandsEngland is an English spree killer serving a life sentence for the murders of three women in Birmingham. A former fairground worker employed at the Rainbow pub in the Digbeth area of the city, Smith killed his victims over a four-day period in Novemberbefriending two of them at the Rainbow before carrying out the crimes.
All three victims were mutilated almost beyond recognition, but Smith was quickly identified as the killer because of the overwhelming evidence linking him to the deaths. Smith's first victim was Jodie Hyde, a recovering butane gas addict whom he met at the Rainbow before killing her hours later.
He is thought to have strangled her before setting her body on fire near a recreation ground. Three days later, he met mother-of-three Rosemary Corcoran at the same public house and drove her to a rural location, where he bludgeoned her to death and drove over the body.
Then, as he drove home, he hit care worker Carol Jordan with his car and, fearing capture, beat her to death. All three bodies were discovered soon after the murders were carried out. Smith was apprehended after he contacted West Midlands Police saying that he wished to make a statement about Corcoran's disappearance. At the time, however, her body had not been positively identified, and inquiries quickly established that some aspects of his account were false.
The murder inquiry, named Operation Green, uncovered a large quantity of strong evidence incriminating Smith, but at first he denied responsibility. He maintained his innocence as his trial began in Julybut later in the proceedings changed his plea to guilty and was sentenced to life imprisonment.
The motive for his crimes was unclear, but police who arrested him believed that a "lack of permanent sexual relations" was a contributing factor. Detectives also investigated the death of a woman who had been a colleague of Smith at the Rainbow. Patricia Lynott, a divorced mother of two from Ireland who had moved to Birmingham, had been found dead in her flat in October Police had not treated the death as suspicious, but after they discovered her connection to Smith, her body was exhumed for a second post mortem.
This proved to be inconclusive, and in January a coroner's jury in Birmingham recorded an open verdict after hearing that the cause of her death could not be determined. He left school at 14 to join Billy Danter's Funfair, which toured extensively throughout the United Kingdom and also employed his father.
Smith moved from Gloucester to Tewkesbury and then Ross-on-Wyewhere he lived with a female partner. They had a son in and two more children inbut Smith left the family and moved to Cardiff when the relationship became difficult.
He told them he was an English gypsy visiting Ireland, and they allowed him to live rent-free in a spare caravanwhile he contributed a portion of his unemployment benefit towards food. This family asked Smith to leave when they became uncomfortable about sexual remarks he had made to young female members of the family.
Smith moved to Birmingham towards the end of and stayed briefly at the Trinity Centre, a hostel for the homeless in Digbethbefore moving to a property managed by a housing association in Braithwaite Road in the Sparkbrook district of Birmingham. He became well-known locally and was a regular patron of the Shamrock Cafe on Stratford Road and of the Rainbow pub in Digbeth, where he was employed on a casual basis as an odd-jobber and served as an unofficial taxi driver for drinkers.
His record also included handling stolen goodsburglary and driving without a licencebut no violence. In an interview with the Birmingham Evening Mail following Smith's trial in JulyJim Smith, proprietor of the Shamrock Cafe, said, "He was a gentle giant who we named 'Bigfoot' because his boots always used to leave black marks on the floor.
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Ninety-nine per cent of the time he had a dirty appearance and looked like he had been working on a car. On 8 NovemberSmith met year-old Jodie Hyde, a recovering butane gas addict from Alum Rock, Birminghamat the Rainbow pub, and they were seen leaving together. Prosecutors believed that he strangled her at his flat  and dumped her body near a recreation ground near Golden Hillock Road in Sparkbrook, where he set it alight.
The body was barely recognisable and had to be identified using fingerprints. A subsequent post mortem concluded that she had been strangled before being rolled up in a carpet and set on fire. Three days later, Smith met Rosemary Corcoran, a year-old mother of three from Castle Vale at the same pub, and again they were seen leaving together.
He drove her to Worcestershire before bludgeoning her to death and running over her body near Droitwich Spa. Smith hit her from behind with his car while driving back from Worcestershire, fracturing her hip. Fearing that he would be caught, Smith moved her to another location and beat her so much that dental records were required to identify her corpse. When staff at the Rainbow pub told Smith of Corcoran's disappearance on 13 November, he telephoned the police station at Castle Vale saying that he wished to give a statement.Bruce D.
Mendenhall born April 14, is a convicted American murderer and accused serial killer. He was arrested in Tennessee in July — and found guilty in  — for the June 26, murder of Sara Hulbert. The body was found by the security guard on duty that night.
A long haul trucker, his truck was found to contain the blood of numerous other murdered or missing women. Mendenhall grew up in Crawford County, Illinois. He was married with two daughters. Pat Postiglione spotted a truck that matched surveillance footage from the night Sara Nicole Hulbert was murdered at the same truck stop.
On August 2,Mendenhall waived his right to a preliminary hearing. Mendenhall's victims were primarily young prostitutesusually found shot, though detectives have determined that his method of killing may have changed over the years.
He has also implicated himself in the shooting death of Symantha Winters, whose body was found June 6, in a trash can at a truck stop in Lebanon, Tennessee.
She had a criminal record showing at least one previous charge of prostitution. He was subsequently convicted and sentenced to life. Another victim killed on July 11, at a Flying J truck stop on Interstate in Indianapolis, Indiana was recently found.
Carma Purpura, a year-old mother of two, was last seen at the far-southside Indianapolis truck stop. DNA tests link a large quantity of the blood from Mendenhall's truck cab to the woman's parents. Investigators also found her cell phone, ATM card and clothing she wore on the day she disappeared.
Four years later her remains were discovered just off I in Kentucky. On July 28, police in BirminghamAlabama charged Mendenhall with the murder of Lucille "Gretna" Carter, who was found nude in a trash bin with a plastic bag taped around her head on July 1. She was shot with a.
Investigators said Mendenhall was initially cooperative, but subsequently ceased to implicate himself in other murders. Until AugustMendenhall was considered in the murder of Jennifer Smith, a prostitute found nude at a truck stop in Bucksnort, Tennessee in April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. November Archived from the original on Retrieved San Jose Mercury News. Metropolitan Nashville Police Department. USA Today. Lebanon Democrat.
Indianapolis Star. Chicago Tribune. The Tennessean.Kelly Kazek kkazek al. By Kelly Kazek. When I created this list, I tried to stick with more historical figures when dealing with violent crimes, to prevent highlighting any recent tragedies.
However, political and business figures from any generation were fair game. Who did I choose for your county? Do you agree, or would you have picked someone else?
Autauga County. Rice, religious folk artist, The "garden" was a collection of folk art crosses and signs on his Prattville property that admonished passersby "Hell is Hot Hot Hot," "Jesus Saves" and "Repent. Time Magazine wrote : "William C. Rice, who died inbuilt this 'garden' as a testament to his salvation by Christ in the late s. While frightening in its fervor, the collection is an example of folk art at its most primitive.
From the book "Alabama Scoundrels". Baldwin County. Railroad Bill, legendary outlaw, ca. Bill eluded them, hijacking a train car in the process.
This incident initiated a manhunt after the railroad detectives gathered a posse and began tracking the man they were now calling Railroad Bill. Barbour County. George Wallace, controversial Alabama governor, George Corley Wallace Jr. Wallace is known for his pro-segregation stance in the s, famously saying in his inaugural address he stood for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.
He was shot in a assassination attempt that left him in a wheelchair. He eventually renounced segregationism. Source: Jacque via FindaGrave. Bibb County. Bart Thrasher, outlaw, ca. Retrospective article from The Tuscaloosa News, June 24, Blount County.
Bill Wilson, wrongfully convicted man, ca. When bones were discovered in spring of by a local farmer and his son fishing in the Warrior River, local resident Jim House remembered that Jenny Wade Wilson and her month-old baby had not been seen since Wilson was convicted of murder. InJudge J. Blackwood sentenced Wilson to life in prison. She and her daughter, by then 11 years old, had been living in Vincennes, Ind. On July 8,Alabama Gov.The year-old woman in the Sierra, Samo Paull, was dead.
She had been strangled and burst blood vessels had made her skin go mottled. The nervous-looking man was Alun Kyte, a loner from the West Midlands police now believe may be a worse mass killer than Peter Sutcliffe, the infamous Yorkshire Ripper.
Like Sutcliffe, Kyte had few friends and a violent hatred of women. He also preyed on prostitutes and killed them after sex. Like Sutcliffe, Kyte managed to evade arrest for years. But while Sutcliffe was jailed for killing eight young women, detectives believe Kyte, 35, may have murdered as many as 20 prostitutes in a macabre murder spree lasting almost two decades. He was given two life sentences at Nottingham Crown Court last week for the murder of Paull, last seen alive in Decemberand another Birmingham prostitute, Tracy Turner, last seen on 3 March at Her naked body was found seven hours later, dumped on the verge of another desolate lane.
But the proceedings in court did not convey the full story of the activities of the so-called Midlands Ripper or the extent of his evil. As detectives told The Observer this weekend that they were examining the disappearances of prostitutes going back tothe first details of Kyte's life were beginning to emerge - and a trail of deaths stretching from Liverpool to Glasgow. It seemed, according to detectives, that he chose to live an itinerant lifestyle in order to maximise his opportunity to kill in different parts of the country.
There was little to suggest from his background that Kyte would embark on such a grisly criminal career. He was born on 7 July in Tittensor, Stoke on Trent.
After growing up with his parents in a quiet suburban street in the Rickerscote area of Stafford, Kyte left school and started a series of odd jobs. A sickly youngster, he always kept an inhaler nearby in case of a sudden attack of the chronic asthma he had suffered from since he was a boy.
His mother and two sisters doted on him, believing he could do no wrong. Few people knew Kyte closely.
A rare childhood friend at the local pub says: 'He'd come in here with his mate, play pool and leave. Detectives now know he was also scouring the country for victims. They were almost always prostitutes - picked because they were vulnerable and many did not have families who knew what they were doing. He also frequented motorway service stations. When reports first reached police that a man was attacking prostitutes, it was difficult to know if the same person was involved. Information on the attacks was collated by Operation Enigma, the police's audacious attempt to find links between 72 unsolved murders of women throughout the country.
The operation, run by the National Crime Faculty in Hampshire, used tracking and data analysis techniques from Canada. Detectives and forensic scientists sought to upgrade DNA samples and genetic information discovered at the scene of every crime, and match them to unsolved murders.
But Kyte was cunning. A chilling insight into his modus operandi was provided to The Observer last week by a former prostitute in the Birmingham area. Now the mother of five children, she was working alone on a wet March night in the Balsall Heath area. He was her seventh customer that night.By Mackenzie Samet and Jackie Salo.
August 14, am Updated August 24, am. The stereotypical version of a serial killer often is portrayed in Hollywood and crime novels: A young, white male who is extremely cunning but mentally disturbed slays scores of women to satisfy his sexual needs. The reality, however, is that most mass murderers lead ordinary lives despite their perverse deeds.
Few look like the most infamous serial killers in history — with only about Many are married, educated and gainfully employed. Like the general population, documented serial killers span racial groups, range in intelligence and are both genders. Through studies, a shocking new profile of the people who commit these grisly crimes has emerged, putting to rest the myths that surround them. Myth: Serial killers are white males. Serial predators are highly diverse, reflecting the demographics of the US population, according to the FBI.
White people represent around 58 percent of killers, compared with While many prolific, white serial killers have gripped headlines, far less ink has been dedicated to those who are women or minorities.
They include:. The majority of mass murders contributed to and interacted with the community — whether before, during or after their crime sprees. Serial killers are married, employed and have served in combat. In some cases, their seemingly normal lives helped them elude arrest. Their intelligence ranges from borderline to above average compared to the general population, according to the FBI.
More intelligent killers tend to prefer complicated methods of murder such as using bombs and poison. Shockingly, one of the most infamous serial predators, Charles Manson, had an IQ of 75, below the 85 to range considered to be average. However, it is evident that the reasons behind these gruesome killings extend beyond sexual gratification.
Their motivations run the gamut from financial gain to attention. Read Next. Gowanus Canal cleanup has unearthed historic treasures — This story has been sharedtimes. This story has been shared 66, times.
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